To target the pathogenesis of diseases, innate or adaptive immune system, numerous biological drugs have been approved, targeting multiple mechanisms of the immune and inflammatory cascade.1
Xiao Q, et al. Biological drug and drug delivery-mediated immunotherapy. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 2021;11(4):941-960
Biologic agents have become indispensable in the management of autoimmune diseases. The introduction of biosimilars into the market has helped increase competition allowing costs to be reduced while maintaining efficacy.1
Rischin A and Östör AJK. Update on biosimilars in rheumatology. Inflammopharmacology 2017;25(2):177-184.
Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are debilitating progressive diseases that require timely intervention and continuous management.
The therapeutic aims for all IMIDs are identical: to gain rapid control of inflammation, prevent tissue damage, improve QoL and, if possible, achieve long‐term disease remission. In achieving these aims, targeted biologic therapy has been revolutionary.2 The timing of therapy is paramount and treatment should commence early for optimal outcome.2
However, current guidelines often reserve these drugs for patients with more severe disease and/or patients who have failed to respond to multiple other treatments.1 In some countries, access to biologics may then be further limited by the implementation of national eligibility and reimbursement criteria,1 creating a high unmet need in many countries worldwide.
IMID, immune-mediated inflammatory disease.
APC, antigen-presenting cell; AS, ankylosing spondylitis; CD, Crohn’s disease; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; Pso, psoriasis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; UC, ulcerative colitis.